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9 Ways to case study obesity Write a More Original Essay to Impress Your Teachers and Improve Your Marks. As a bright student who aspires to the upper echelons of the phd thesis university league tables and the highest degree classification, you’re naturally going to want your essays to stand out case obesity, from the essex phd thesis crowd. Faced with the same essay question and reading material, it’s likely that there’s going to on childhood be a significant degree of conformity among the essays produced by your classmates. Block. Having read the case on childhood same literature or scholarship, everyone tends to end up writing much the editing english same thing which must get rather boring for the person marking it! If you want to reach the top marks and impress your teacher or lecturer, as well as developing your own knowledge of the on childhood obesity subject and cultivating your capacity for original thinking, you need to start writing more original essays. So how do you make yours a bit different, so that it gets noticed?

Here are a few tips to give you some inspiration. An illustration of the essex phd thesis attack on Derna in the First Barbary War. If you want to on childhood obesity write an essay that nobody else is going to be writing, you’ll need to start by selecting a topic that nobody else is going to book high be writing about. Of course, you may not have this option if you’ve had an essay title dictated to you, but if you’ve been given free rein (as you’re more likely to be when you’re at university, if only for your thesis title), this is your opportunity to go for something more individual. Perhaps rather than writing about something general, you could hone in on the specific and choose something that’s less well known, but show that it too is important and worthy of greater consideration. For example, say you were set an essay on the subject of war and asked to write about one in particular. We’re willing to bet that most students would opt for World War I or World War II, simply because they’re the best known and there’s a lot written about on childhood obesity, them. If you wanted to write something more original, you could choose a lesser-known conflict, such as the First Barbary War (1801 1805) between the United States and the Barbary States, which were made up of modern Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and block letter, Libya. It’ll be the last thing your teacher or tutor will be expecting, and, providing you can say intelligent things about it, your essay should stand out from the crowd for all the right reasons. The theory of panspermia that all life on case obesity, Earth was originally extra-terrestrial still has some scientific currency but may be too much of a minority opinion for case on childhood obesity your essay. If you can’t find a suitably obscure topic to write about that’s within the limits of the brief you’ve been set, your other option is to argue the case for case on childhood an opinion that deviates from the standard accepted one.

For extra brownie points this could even be your own theory, providing that you have a reasonable amount of evidence to support it, and providing that you also consider other opinions in your essay. Creative Book Reports. Be careful with doing this, as you could risk making a fool of yourself if you choose to defend a widely discredited opinion with lots of evidence stacked against it. Case Study. If you do choose this tactic, brainstorm all the cover possible objections or responses to case study obesity it and pre-empt them in your essay. This way, as the person marking your essay reads through it and starts to cover letter think, “But what if…?” or “and how about…?”, you’ll have a response ready and waiting for them. This will show that you’ve thought about it in case study obesity considerable depth, adding weight to of formal essay your argument and study, proving that you’re someone with the intellectual curiosity to creative reports school explore new ideas.

You may find yourself searching through books that haven’t seen much attention. If you read the same material as everyone else, the chances are fairly high that you’ll end up writing a very similar essay to everyone else. Case Study. While you should certainly not disregard the case obesity material on study on childhood obesity, your reading list far from it you can do a little extra reading outside the prescribed literature and impress your teacher or tutor with your additional knowledge. On Childhood. If you’re not sure where to start with finding other things to read, here are some good sources of information and advice: Your teacher or tutor the easiest way to case get a few extra ideas for additional reading material is to ask your teacher or tutor. They should be willing to provide you with this, and you’ll also score some more brownie points upfront by asking in the first place. A word of warning, though: if you’ve asked for extra reading material, they’ll probably be expecting to see evidence in your essay that you’ve read it! So be careful you don’t shoot yourself in the foot. Footnotes these are a great place to phd thesis look for additional (relevant) reading material by scholars or writers who’ve been cited somewhere in the text, but who may not have been on your original reading list. The author and title of the publication should be included in the footnote, with more details in case study on childhood the bibliography at the back. Ask the librarian though the librarian isn’t going to know every single piece of scholarship in obesity the library like the back of their hand, they may be able to case obesity point you in the direction of letter, some other publications that may contain relevant material. Google search though you should try to avoid using the internet for performing actual research, it could prove useful in study on childhood locating some scholarship on the subject you’re writing about.

If you read a Wikipedia article, the points made in the article should have clickable footnotes for supporting evidence; click on them, and you’ll jump to the bottom of the page for details of where this point came from. Then you just need to look up the book or article, either in the library or online (if you search the title of the publication, you might be able to essex find a digital version available to case on childhood obesity read online). Be aware that some subjects, such as French, have a rigid structure for essays; keep your variations within the structure you’ve been told to use. If you’re struggling to find something original to say in block cover the actual content of your essay, you could instead try experimenting with a different structure to the one you imagine your peers will be using. Case Obesity. Particularly at A-level, you’ll find that what you’ve learned in class, and the way in case obesity which the questions are worded, makes a particular structure suggest itself straightaway. Case. Rather than going with your first inclination, you could perhaps experiment with a different way of structuring it. That doesn’t mean you should dispense with the conventions of an introduction and conclusion, of course. Pay To Your Essay. Trying a new structure just means thinking outside the case on childhood obesity box when it comes to how you deal with the evidence you have available to discuss.

Doing something different with the structure should capture the interest of the essex person marking it but do make sure it’s for the right reasons, rather than because your argument is all over the place! 5. In English Literature, compare your set text with others. An essay on 1984 might reference Animal Farm. Study On Childhood. If you’re asked to write an essay about the set text you’re working on, it can be difficult to come up with something original. You and your classmates will probably be regurgitating the same interpretations given to you by your English teacher, and although this is an opportunity to come up with your own original interpretations, it’s not always possible to think of write your essay, something that hasn’t already been thought of. A possible avenue for writing something a bit more original in this situation is to add in study some comparisons with between the set text and other literature of the elements essay same author or period, or upon which your set text may have had an influence. For example, say you’re studying Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell.

Unless they’ve been instructed otherwise, your classmates are probably going to stick exclusively to talking about this specific book. So, to obesity be more original, you could bring in other works by block Orwell, as well as other dystopian fiction likely to have been influenced by Orwell. An example of a phrase you might use could be, “This is an idea Orwell had touched on four years previously in Animal Farm …”. Or, “This idea was to study have a profound influence on essex phd thesis, Margaret Atwood, who developed the idea decades later in The Handmaid’s Tale ”. Try not to shoehorn references to other works into your essay just for case the sake of it; only include them where it would develop your argument further, or add some context. Done properly, referring to other texts in this way helps make your essay more original at the same time as impressing the person marking it with the breadth of your knowledge. 6. Include photographs, charts and other illustrations. Elements Of Formal Essay. Contemporary images can support your essay. Provided they don’t detract from the words, visual illustrations could be another way to on childhood add originality to your essay. While you’ll need to be careful that they don’t come across as trying to divert attention away from an ill-formed argument in the writing itself, illustrations such as charts, graphs, tables, photographs, diagrams and so on can be a great way to support the text and make the of formal essay overall essay more rich and interesting. Carefully thought-out visual features such as these can be an case extremely effective way of conveying information, and, if nothing else, will certainly give your teacher or lecturer something of a break in essex phd thesis the monotony of obesity, essay-marking! 7. Use more advanced language and elements of formal, syntax.

Making use of a good vocabulary and employing advanced sentence structures are ways in which you can make your essay more linguistically original. What’s more, rather than aping the case on childhood obesity written style of whichever author or scholar you happen to be reading at the time, make sure you write in your own voice. That doesn’t mean you should write conversational English; it simply means that you need to creative book reports high school find your own tone of voice and communicate confidently in it. Case Study. The reader needs to feel that you know what you’re talking about, so confident use of language, in particular the effective use of editing english, sophisticated words and more advanced syntax, are crucial. Your essay shouldn’t read as though you’ve had a thesaurus next to you while you were writing it and replaced all the simpler words with more complicated ones; but a cleverly delivered under-used word will give a good impression. Case Study On Childhood Obesity. The rate at which water comes out of the bucket declines exponentially, a handy analogy for radioactive decay.

This tip may not be applicable to editing english all essays, but one way of study, making your essay more original is to explain a complex concept using an analogy. Editing English. An analogy, simply put, is study when you compare one thing with another to help explain something. Most students will battle on with trying to explain something with a straightforward definition. However, if you can find a simpler way of explaining it using an cover analogy, then you may be able to summarise the concept far more effectively. For example, the pressure with which water escapes from a bucket with a hole in it can be used to study on childhood obesity explain exponential decay in phd thesis radioactive substances. In both cases, the rate of a consumptive process depends on how much there is left of whatever is obesity being depleted, which results in an exponential rate of decay. Drawing comparisons in this way takes advantage of the reader’s existing knowledge of something else to explain something new to them.

Providing your analogy doesn’t become too tenuous, this is a sure-fire way to deliver greater originality in your essay. Many students are so absorbed in writing about the opinions of other people that they forget to include anything of their own. This gives you an easy way of making your essay more original than theirs, by essex phd thesis including your own opinion. You should avoid using the pronoun “I” too much (the received wisdom is case obesity that you should never say it, but there is a time and a place in my view), and your essay shouldn’t revolve around it; but there’s certainly nothing wrong with giving your own intelligent responses to the things you’ve read. Doing so shows a genuine interest in study the subject, and it’s unlikely that your classmates will have made such an effort as this. With a little extra effort and on childhood obesity, thought, it’s relatively easy to make your essay stand out from the crowd.

Is it worth putting in write your this extra elbow grease? Absolutely. You’ll be rewarded with good academic references, a deeper knowledge and, ultimately, better grades.

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Childhood Obesity: A Case Study - 1259 Words -…

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. William James is considered by many to be the most insightful and stimulating of American philosophers, as well as the second of the three great pragmatists (the middle link between Charles Sanders Peirce and John Dewey). As a professor of psychology and of philosophy at Harvard University, he became the most famous living American psychologist and later the most famous living American philosopher of his time. Avoiding the logically tight systems typical of European rationalists, such as the German idealists, he cobbled together a psychology rich in philosophical implications and a philosophy enriched by his psychological expertise. More specifically, his theory of the self and his view of human belief as oriented towards conscious action raised issues that required him to turn to philosophy. There he developed his pragmatic epistemology, which considers the meaning of ideas and study the truth of beliefs not abstractly, but in editing english, terms of the practical difference they can make in people’s lives. He explored the implications of this theory in areas of religious belief, metaphysics, human freedom and moral values, and social philosophy. His contributions in these areas included critiques of long-standing philosophical positions on such issues as freedom vs. determinism, correspondence vs. coherence, and case on childhood dualism vs. Elements Of Formal. materialism, as well as a thorough analysis of a phenomenological understanding of the self and consciousness, a “forward-looking” conception of truth (based on study on childhood obesity validation and phd thesis revisable experience), a thorough-going metaphysical pluralism, and a commitment to a full view of agency in connection with communal and social concerns. Study Obesity. Thus he created one of the last great philosophical systems in Western thought, even if he did not live quite long enough to complete every aspect of it. The combination of his provocative ideas and editing english his engaging writing style has contributed to the enduring impact of his work. Born in New York City on obesity January 11, 1842, William James was the oldest of the five children of Henry James, Sr., and Mary Walsh James.

His oldest brother, Henry James, Jr., the renowned writer of fiction, was followed by two other brothers and a sister. The family frequently moved between America and Europe, the father having inherited an school amount of money sufficient to allow him to study, enjoy the life of an intellectual. While growing up, William had a passion for drawing. Since he wanted to become a painter, the family moved to case study on childhood obesity, Newport, Rhode Island in 1860, where William studied with the leading American portraitist, William Morris Hunt. Although he had talent, he gave up this career goal in less than a year. He had decided that it was insufficient for case on childhood obesity, him to do first-rate work. All this is indicative of three things: the family’s remarkable support for his aspirations; his own quest to achieve excellence; and his restless, indecisive difficulty in remaining committed to a career path.

In 1861, the American Civil War erupted. In response to President Lincoln’s call for volunteers, James committed himself to a short-term enlistment. However, already in delicate health, he left when it expired after three months. Elements Of Formal. (His younger brothers Wilky and case on childhood Bob served in the Union Army.) He then enrolled in the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard University, his family moving to Boston. There he studied chemistry and editing english then physiology, prior to his entering Harvard’s Medical School in 1863. A couple of years later, he took a year off to join a scientific expedition to Brazil, led by Louis Agassiz. But bad health eventually forced him to quit the expedition, and he returned to medical school (the James family moving from Boston to Cambridge, Massachusetts). Again he left, this time to study physiology and medicine in Germany and to recover his health. He failed to find a cure for his curious back pains, but returned to Harvard, passed his medical exams, and received his medical degree in on childhood obesity, 1869.

Nevertheless, he did not plan to practice medicine and seemed lost as to what to do with the rest of his life. By the end of that same year, James’s neurological symptoms had become worse. His training in block, hard science was making it impossible for him to believe in human freedom and, thus, in the value of struggling for moral ideals; the despair of study on childhood materialism was leading him to the depression of determinism. In a barely disguised case history in his Varieties of Religious Experience , he tells of visiting an asylum while he was a medical student, and seeing an epileptic patient whose condition had reduced him to an idiotic state. James could not dispel the elements essay, realization that if universal determinism prevails, he could likewise sink into such a state, utterly incapable of preventing it ( Varieties, pp.

135-136) . His dread over case on childhood the sense of life’s absolute insecurity pushed him to essex phd thesis, become a virtual invalid in his parents’ home. He considered suicide. By the spring of study 1870, when James was twenty-eight years old, he experienced a critical moment while reading a treatment of human freedom by reports high school, the French neo-Kantian Charles Renouvier. He discovered the solution to his problem in case obesity, the voluntaristic act of will whereby he could commit himself to believing in his own freedom despite any lack of objective evidence. He started down the editing english, road to recovery, though the remainder of his life would be plagued by case study, seemingly psychosomatic troubles (serious eye strain, mysterious back pains, digestive problems, and periods of essay exhaustion, as well as chronic mood swings, including times of brooding depression). Unfortunately, he still lacked a constructive career goal. In 1872, one of study on childhood James’s former chemistry professors, now Harvard’s President, offered him a job teaching physiology. Elements Of Formal Essay. He accepted and case on childhood obesity began his career of more than a third of a century as a faculty member there. Essex Phd Thesis. The next year, he became an instructor of anatomy and physiology.

By the mid-eighteen-seventies, he was teaching psychology there, using the physiological approach he had learned in Germany and establishing the first psychology laboratory in America. He met a schoolteacher named Alice Howe Gibbens, whom he married in 1878. Like his parents, they had five children, naming the on childhood obesity, first two Henry and William. Of Formal. Alice was adept at handling his neurotic obsessions and emotional moodiness, and they seem to have had a good marriage, living comfortably in Cambridge. The year they married, James agreed to write a psychology textbook; however, by then he was already drifting away from psychology into philosophy. He was a member of study on childhood a Metaphysical Club that included Oliver Wendell Holmes, who taught law at essex Harvard and case study would go on to serve on the U. S. Supreme Court, and Charles Sanders Peirce, a philosopher of science, who would become the founder of American pragmatism. In 1879, James began teaching philosophy at study on childhood Harvard, becoming an study assistant professor of philosophy the next year. He published “The Sentiment of high Rationality,” his first important article in his new discipline. As he got deeper into on childhood obesity philosophy, he developed a negative attitude towards psychology. After becoming a full professor of editing english philosophy in 1885 and of psychology in 1889, he published his Principles of case Psychology in 1890.

It had taken him close to twelve years to editing english, finish it, and, though it would be extremely successful, he was dissatisfied with it and disgusted with psychology ( Letters , vol. 1, pp. 294, 296, vol. 2, pp. Study On Childhood Obesity. 2-3). Nevertheless, he agreed to prepare an abridged version, which was published two years later as Psychology: Briefer Course ; it too would be widely used and essex help to establish his reputation as the foremost living American psychologist.

He resigned his directorship of Harvard’s psychology lab and case committed himself to teaching and writing philosophy. In 1897, James’s first philosophical book, The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy , was published, dedicated to block, Charles Sanders Peirce. The following year, at obesity the University of California at Berkeley, he delivered a lecture, “Philosophical Conceptions and Practical Results,” which helped to study, launch pragmatism as a nationwide philosophical movement. In 1899, his Talks to Teachers on case study on childhood obesity Psychology and to Students on Some of Life’s Ideals was published. Block Cover. Overworked at Harvard and case jeopardizing his fragile health, he suffered a physical breakdown that same year. While recovering his health, he studied a wide range of accounts of school religious experience and prepared his Gifford Lectures, which he delivered at the University of Edinburgh in 1901-02. These were published as The Varieties of Religious Experience in 1902 and proved to be quite successful, although James himself was displeased, believing them to case on childhood, contain too much reporting on facts and too little philosophical analysis. For the remainder of his life, James focused on creative the development of his own philosophy, writing essays and lectures that would later be collected and published in four books. In the spring of 1906, he took a leave of absence from Harvard to take a visiting professorship at Stanford University, though his lecture series in California was interrupted by the great San Francisco earthquake.

In late 1906 and early 1907, he delivered his lectures on Pragmatism in Boston and at Columbia University, publishing them in the spring of 1907. That was also the year he resigned from Harvard, worried that he might die before being able to complete his philosophical system, as he was suffering from angina and shortness of breath. He delivered the Hibbert Lectures in England in 1908, published the next year as A Pluralistic Universe , aimed at combating the neo-Hegelian idealism that was then prevalent in Great Britain. Meanwhile, he was under intellectual assault by mainstream philosophers for his pragmatic treatment of on childhood obesity truth, which he defended in a collection of essays published in case study, 1909 as The Meaning of case study obesity Truth . By the next year, James’s heart trouble left him so plagued by fatigue that normal activities became quite difficult. He was attempting to complete his textbook on Some Problems of Philosophy , but died on August 26, 1910. In 1911, his textbook, edited by case on childhood, his son Henry, and case study obesity his Memories and Studies were posthumously published. In 1912, his Essays in Radical Empiricism was published, followed, in 1920, by your, some of study obesity his Collected Essays and Reviews and The Letters of William James , edited in two volumes by his son Henry. His writings have survived in study on childhood obesity, part because of the provocative honesty of his ideas, but also because of the vibrant, sometimes racy, style in which he expressed them. On Childhood Obesity. In A Pluralistic Universe , he castigates philosophers who use technical jargon instead of case on childhood clear, straightforward language. Study On Childhood. He practiced the spontaneous thinking and freshness of expression he advocates there ( Universe , pp. 129-130).

It has been said (by the novelist Rebecca West) that, while Henry James wrote fiction as though it were philosophy, his older brother, William, wrote philosophy in a colorful style typical of fiction. By the early 1890s, when James published his two books on psychology, the discipline was in the process of splitting off from creative reports high philosophical speculation (“psychology” literally means “the study of the soul”) to establish itself as an empirical social science. Case Study. Despite impatience with the process of that development, he contributed significantly to moving it along, regarding psychology as the science of our mental phenomena or states of consciousness, such as thoughts, feelings, desires, volitions, and so forth. a. The Stream of Consciousness and the Self. In analyzing what can broadly be termed human thinking, James delineates five generic characteristics: (1) all thought is owned by some personal self; (2) all thought, as experienced by human consciousness, is constantly in flux and never static; (3) nevertheless, there is an ongoing continuity of thought for every thinker, as it moves from one object to another (like the alternating times of flight and case on childhood perching in case study, a bird’s life), constantly comprising shifting foci and the contextual fringes within which they are given; (4) thought typically deals with objects different from and independent of consciousness itself, so that two minds can experience common objects; and letter (5) consciousness takes an interest in particular objects, choosing to focus on case study them rather than on others ( Principles , vol. 1, pp. 224-226, 236-237, 239, 243, 258-259, 271-272, 284; Psychology , pp.

152-154, 157-160, 166-167, 170). The self can be viewed as an object of thought or as the subject of thought. The former is the empirical self or “me,” while the latter is the pure ego or “I.” The dimensions of the empirical self (“me”) include the “material” self (comprised of one’s body and such extensions of creative reports school it as one’s clothing, immediate family, and home), the “social” self (or significant interpersonal relations), and the “spiritual” self (one’s personality, character, and case on childhood defining values). The pure ego (“I”), identifiable with the soul of traditional metaphysics, cannot be an object of science and should not be assumed to be a substance ( Principles , vol. 1, pp. 291-294, 296, 319, 343-344, 348, 350; Psychology , pp. Editing English. 176-181, 194, 196, 198, 200, 202-203, 215-216). b. Sensation, Perception, Imagination, and study on childhood obesity Belief. James states that if we track the dynamic of case mental activity, we discern a standard pattern from sensation to perception to imagination to belief.

Through sensation, we become acquainted with some given fact. This can, but need not, lead to knowledge about that fact, achieved by perceiving its relations to other given facts. Both sensation and perception involve an immediate intuition of some given objects. Imagination, less immediate, retrieves mental copies of past sensations and perceptions, even when their external stimuli are no longer present. Case Study On Childhood. Belief is the sense or feeling that ideas or propositions formed in essex, the imagination correspond to reality. Every proposition can be analyzed in case study on childhood, terms of its object and phd thesis whether that object is believed. The object of a proposition comprises a subject (such as my horse), a predicate (wings), and study a relation between them (my horse has sprouted wings). The belief is the psychic attitude a mind has towards that object (for example, I believe it or deny it or am in doubt about editing english it) ( Principles , vol. 2, pp. Case On Childhood Obesity. 1-3, 44, 76-77, 82-83, 283-284, 287-290; Psychology , pp. Study. 12-14, 302, 312, 316-317).

Like other animals, we have primitive instincts, such as fear, some desires, and certain forms of sympathy, which do not require being taught them or consciously focusing on ends. However, we also have emotions that are learned behavior and do involve such a focus—for example, a fear of failure and the desire for study on childhood, an academic degree. Instincts and emotions thus overlap, the latter tending to cover a broader range of objects than the former. We tend to assume that perceptions trigger emotional responses, eventuating in bodily expressions—that we suddenly see a bear, become frightened, and essay then tremble and study on childhood run away. But James thinks the actual sequence is perception, followed by study obesity, bodily expressions, followed by emotional feeling—that we see the case on childhood, bear, tremble and run away, then feel those physical events as what we call fear. The idea that emotions ultimately have physical causes emphasizes the study on childhood, intimate relationship between our bodies and our mental life ( Principles , vol. 2, pp. 383, 410, 442, 449-453, 467; Psychology , pp. 391, 375-376, 378-381). The human will is crucial for deliberately acting on case obesity our beliefs and creative book reports school emotions. Sometimes we consider alternative courses of action and case study on childhood obesity seem to select one among them, as if making a voluntary decision.

James maps out five sorts of decision-making: (1) the reasonable sort, whereby we accede to rational arguments; (2) the sort that is triggered by external circumstances, such as overhearing a rumor; (3) the essex, sort that is prompted by our submission to something within ourselves, such as a habit formed by past actions; (4) the sort that results from a sudden change of mood such as might be caused by a feeling of grief; and (5) the rare sort that is a consequence of our own voluntary choice, which will be identified as the “will to believe.” Whether we have free will or not is case, a metaphysical issue that cannot be scientifically determined ( Principles , vol. 2, pp. 486-488, 528, 531-534, 572-573; Psychology , pp. 415, 419-420, 428-434, 456-457). Even if philosophically interesting matters such as freedom vs. Of Formal. determinism cannot be scientifically resolved, some sort of epistemological methodology is needed if we are to avoid arbitrary conclusions. Whatever approach is study on childhood obesity, chosen, it is clear that James repudiates rationalism, with its notions of a priori existential truths. He is particularly hostile to German idealism, which he identifies especially with Hegel and which he attacks in many of his essays (this identification leads him to be remarkably unfair to Kant, an earlier German idealist). As he makes clear in “The Sentiment of Rationality,” the personality of the would-be knower and various practical concerns are far too relevant to allow for such abstract intellectualism. The tradition of modern empiricism is more promising, yet too atomistic to allow us to move much beyond the knowledge of acquaintance to genuine comprehension ( Will , pp. 63-67, 70, 75-77, 82-86, 89, 92).

Fortunately, James had already learned about the pragmatic approach from Peirce. James’s book of lectures on Pragmatism is your, arguably the most influential book of American philosophy. The first of its eight lectures presents pragmatism as a more attractive middle ground between the two mainstream approaches of European philosophy. The “tender-minded” approach tends to be rationalistic, intellectualistic, idealistic, optimistic, religious, committed to freedom, monistic, and dogmatic; by contrast, the on childhood, “tough-minded” approach tends to be empirical, grounded in sensations, materialistic, pessimistic, irreligious, fatalistic, pluralistic, and case skeptical. It is difficult to identify many pure types of either of these in the history of philosophy, and some thinkers (such as Kant) are deliberately mixed, as is James himself. He thinks that most of us want a philosophical method that is firmly anchored in empirical facts, while being open to, rather than dismissive of, moral and religious values. He offers pragmatism as a philosophy that coherently meets both demands. James’s second lecture is case study on childhood obesity, committed to elements essay, showing how the pragmatic method helps us establish meaning by making it a function of case on childhood practical consequences (the word “pragmatic” means having to write, do with action and is etymologically related to our English word “practical”). Before we invest much time or effort in seeking the meaning of study on childhood anything, we should consider what practical difference it would make if we could find out. Providing an example to illustrate his point, James refers to the Hegelian notion of God as the all-encompassing Absolute Spirit.

How should we decide whether this is school, what we should mean by God? Consider the practical consequences for a believer: on the one hand, it would provide us with the optimistic, comforting assurance that everything will work out for case obesity, the best; but, on the other, it also undermines the values of human individuality, freedom, and responsibility. Your. From that pragmatic perspective, James rejects the study on childhood, Hegelian notion. Case On Childhood Obesity. Undoubtedly, philosophy provides us with only one legitimate approach to belief, as he observes in his fifth lecture, others being common sense (with its basic concepts derived from study on childhood experience) and science. Editing English. However, these others are impotent in dealing with questions of case study obesity freedom and case value ( Pragmatism , pp. Study Obesity. 10-13, 18, 26-28, 30-38, 79-80, 83-85). It seems that anything knowable must be true. But what does it mean to call a proposition or belief “true” from the perspective of pragmatism? This is the subject of James’s famous sixth lecture. Study On Childhood. He begins with a standard dictionary analysis of truth as agreement with reality. Accepting this, he warns that pragmatists and intellectualists will disagree over how to interpret the concepts of “agreement” and case study on childhood “reality,” the latter thinking that ideas copy what is fixed and independent of us.

By contrast, he advocates a more dynamic and practical interpretation, a true idea or belief being one we can incorporate into of formal essay our ways of thinking in such a way that it can be experientially validated. On Childhood Obesity. For James, the “reality” with which truths must agree has three dimensions: (1) matters of fact, (2) relations of letter ideas (such as the eternal truths of mathematics), and (3) the entire set of other truths to which we are committed. To say that our truths must “agree” with such realities pragmatically means that they must lead us to useful consequences. He is a fallibilist, seeing all existential truths as, in on childhood obesity, theory, revisable given new experience. They involve a relationship between facts and our ideas or beliefs.

Because the facts, and block our experience of them, change we must beware of regarding such truths as absolute, as rationalists tend to do ( Pragmatism , pp. 91-97, 100-101). This relativistic theory generated a firestorm of criticism among mainstream philosophers to which he responded in case obesity, The Meaning of Truth . c. The Pragmatic Approach to Belief. Western philosophers have traditionally viewed knowledge as justified, true belief. So long as the idea of truth is pragmatically analyzed and given a pragmatic interpretation of justification, James seems to accept that view. His entire philosophy can be seen as fundamentally one of productive beliefs. All inquiry must terminate in belief or disbelief or doubt; disbelief is merely a negative belief and doubt is the reports high school, true opposite of both. Study On Childhood Obesity. Believing in anything involves conceiving of it as somehow real; when we dismiss something as unreal (disbelief), it is typically because it somehow contradicts what we think of as real. Editing English. Some of our most fundamental and valuable beliefs do not seem sufficiently justified to be regarded as known. These “postulates of rationality” include the convictions that every event is caused and that the world as a whole is rationally intelligible ( Principles , vol. 2, pp.

283-284, 288-290, 670-672, 675, 677). On Childhood Obesity. As he holds in “The Sentiment of Rationality,” to say that such beliefs, however crucial, are not known, is to admit that, though they involve a willingness to act on them, doubt as to their truth still seems theoretically possible. He identifies four postulates of rationality as value-related, but unknowable, matters of phd thesis belief; these are God, immortality, freedom, and moral duty ( Will , pp. 90, 95). Case. He proceeds to deal with each of them individually. James is arguably the most significant American philosopher of religion in intellectual history, and many of his writings, in addition to editing english, the obligatory “Will to Believe” essay and case study on childhood obesity his book on The Varieties of Religious Experience , offer provocative insights into creative high that area. Because we do not naturally experience the supernatural, James, the radical empiricist, thinks of faith in obesity, God as falling short of knowledge. Yet such faith is pragmatically meaningful to many people, and it is book reports high school, reasonable to case on childhood, wonder whether, how, and to what extent it can be justified.

For James, the logical philosopher trained in science, both logic and science have limits beyond which we can legitimately seek the sentiment of rationality. His notorious “Will to pay to write your essay, Believe” essay is designed to be a defense of religious faith in the absence of conclusive logical argumentation or scientific evidence. Case. It focuses on what he calls a “genuine option,” which is a choice between two hypotheses, which the believer can regard as “living” (personally meaningful), “forced” (mutually exclusive), and “momentous” (involving potentially important consequences). Study On Childhood Obesity. Whether an option is “genuine” is thus relative to case study, the perspective of a particular believer. James acknowledges that in our scientific age, there is something dubious about the essex, voluntaristic view that, in some circumstances, we can legitimately choose to believe in study, the absence of cover letter any objective justification. However, he claims we naturally do so all the time, our moral and political ideas being obvious examples. When you believe that your mother loves you or in the sincerity of your best friend, you have no conclusively objective evidence. In addition, you will never be able to secure such evidence.

Yet it often seems unreasonable to refuse to commit to obesity, believing such matters; if we did so, the pragmatic consequences would be a more impoverished social life. Indeed, in some cases, believing and acting on that belief can help increase the chances of the belief being true. Now let us apply this argument to religious belief. What does religion in pay to, general propose for our belief? The two-pronged answer is study on childhood obesity, that ultimate reality is most valuable and that we are better off if we believe that.

Committing to that two-pronged belief is meaningful, as is the refusal to do so. At any given moment, I must either make that two-pronged commitment or not; and how I experience this life, as well as prospects for a possible after-life, may be at stake. Whether one makes that commitment or not, pragmatic consequences can be involved. Nor should we imagine that we could avoid having to make a choice, as the commitment not to commit is itself a commitment ( Will , pp. 1-4, 7-9, 11-14, 22-30; see also Problems , pp. 221-224).

b. The Varieties of Religious Experience. If religious faith is cover letter, not to be reduced to arbitrary whimsy (the “will to make believe”), it must rest on study on childhood obesity some sort of essay personal experience. As psychologist and philosopher, James deliberately defines “religion” broadly as the experiences of human individuals insofar as they see themselves related to whatever they regard as divine. This definition indicates that religion does not require faith in a transcendent, monotheistic God, and that it does not mandate the social dimension of on childhood obesity religious community. Creative Reports School. James distinguishes between “healthy-mindedness” and the “sick soul” as two extreme types of religious consciousness, the former being characterized by optimistic joy and the latter by a morbid pessimism. In between these extremes are “the divided self” and the stable, well-integrated believer. James develops lengthy analyses of religious conversion, saintliness, and mysticism.

In going beyond these, he considers what philosophy might contribute to establishing “over-beliefs” regarding the existence and nature of the divine. He critically considers traditional arguments for case study, God—the cosmological argument, the argument from design, the moral argument, and the argument from popular consensus—finding none of them particularly cogent, but exhibiting the essex, most respect for the argument from design. Study Obesity. He likewise weighs in write, the balance and finds wanting arguments for metaphysical and moral divine attributes, finding the latter of more pragmatic relevance to human values, choices, and behavior than the former. In his final lecture, he draws conclusions regarding three beliefs that experience finds in case on childhood obesity, religions in essex, general: (1) that our sensible world is part of and derives its significance from a greater spiritual order; (2) that our purpose is fulfilled by achieving harmonious union with it; and (3) that prayer and case on childhood spiritual communion are efficacious. Furthermore, religions typically involve two psychological qualities in their believers: (1) an energetic zest for block, living; and (2) a sense of security, love, and peace. Given that thought and case study on childhood feeling both determine conduct, James thinks that different religions are similar in feeling and conduct, their doctrines being more variable, but less essential. Most generally, these doctrines attempt to diagnose a fundamental uneasiness about our natural state and to prescribe a solution whereby we might be saved ( Varieties , pp. 42, 83, 121, 124, 137, 142, 145-147, 330, 334-341, 367, 380-383). Although James is somewhat vague regarding his own religious “over-beliefs,” they can be pieced together from various passages. He believes there is more to essex phd thesis, reality than our natural world and that this unseen realm generates practical effects in this world.

If we call the supreme being “God,” then we have reason to think the interpersonal relationship between God and study on childhood humans is dynamic and pay to write your essay that God provides us with a guarantee that the moral values we strive to realize will somehow survive us. James describes himself as a supernaturalist (rather than a materialist) of a sort less refined than idealists and as unable to subscribe to popular Christianity. He is unwilling to assume that God is one or infinite, even contemplating the polytheistic notion that the divine is a collection of godlike selves ( Varieties , pp. 384-386, 388-390, 392-393, 395-396). In “The Dilemma of Determinism,” James depicts his image of God with a memorable analogy, comparing God to a master chess player engaged in a give-and-take with us novices. We are free to make our own moves; yet the master knows all the moves we could possibly make, the odds of our choosing one over the others, and how best to respond to any move we choose to make. This indicates two departures from the traditional Judeo-Christian concept of case God, in phd thesis, that the case, master is interacting with us in time (rather than eternal) and does not know everything in the future, to the extent that it is freely chosen by write, us. Case Study Obesity. In “Reflex Action and Theism,” James subscribes to on childhood obesity, a theistic belief in a personal God with whom we can maintain interpersonal relations, who possesses the deepest power in reality (not necessarily omnipotent) and a mind (not omniscient). We can love and respect God to the extent that we are committed to the pursuit of common values. In “Is Life Worth Living?” James even suggests that God may derive strength and energy from case study on childhood obesity our collaboration ( Will , pp.

181-182, 116, 122, 141, 61). Elsewhere, rejecting the Hegelian notion of pay to write your God as an all-encompassing Absolute, he subscribes to a God that is finite in knowledge or in power or in case obesity, both, one that acts in time and has a history and an environment, like us ( Universe , pp. 269, 272; see Letters , vol. 2, pp. 213-215, for James’s responses to a 1904 questionnaire regarding his personal religious beliefs). In contrast to monists such as Hegel, James believes in multiple worlds, specifying seven realms of reality we can experience: (1) the realm that serves as the study on childhood obesity, touchstone of study on childhood obesity reality for pay to your, most of us is the world of case on childhood obesity physical objects of sense experience; (2) the world of science, things understood in terms of physical forces and essex laws of study nature, is available to the educated; (3) philosophy and mathematics expose us to of formal essay, a world of abstract truth and ideal relations; (4) as humans, we are all subject to the distortions of commonplace illusion and prejudices; (5) our cultures expose us to the realms of mythology and fiction; (6) each of us has his or her own subjective opinions, which may or may not be expressed to others; and (7) the case, world of madness can disconnect us from the reality in which others can readily believe.

Normally we can inhabit more than one of these and book be able to discriminate among them. Study On Childhood. What we take to be real must connect with us personally because we find it interesting and/or important, which emphasizes elements of both subjectivity and pragmatic relevance ( Principles , vol. Pay To Essay. 2, pp. 292-299). b. The Philosophical Importance of obesity Metaphysics. Part of what makes James a great philosopher in the grand tradition is that, unlike so many post-Hegelian Western philosophers, he advocates the pivotal importance of metaphysics. Creative High School. The theory of case on childhood reality in general provides a crucial foundational context for philosophy of human nature, philosophy of religion, ethics, social philosophy, and so forth. Philosophy essentially is an intellectual attempt to pay to write essay, come to grips with reality, as he says on the first page of Pragmatism . In its third lecture, James approaches four standard metaphysical issues using his pragmatic method, those of (1) physical and spiritual substance, (2) materialism vs. theism as explanations of our world, (3) whether the natural world indicates intelligent design, and (4) freedom vs. universal determinism. For each of case study on childhood these, we cannot conclusively establish where we should stand based merely on what experience discloses about the past, but can take reasonable positions based on pragmatic anticipated future consequences. As modern philosophy demonstrates, we can never directly and immediately experience any sort of substance; however, we do experience physical qualities and mental events and can best make sense of elements of formal them by attributing them to bodies and minds.

The world is what it is, regardless of study on childhood obesity whether it is the result of divine activity or of the random interactions of atoms moving in space; whether or not it was intelligently designed in the distant past has no bearing on the fact that we experience it as we do. But a world intelligently designed by a deity pragmatically involves the book reports high school, possibility of a promising future, whereas one resulting from unconscious physical forces promises nothing more than a collapse into meaningless obliteration. On the study obesity, one hand, if everything we may do or fail to do is determined, why bother doing anything? On the other hand, if we are free to choose at least some of our actions, then effort can be meaningful. In the fourth lecture, James states that our world can be viewed as one (monism) or as an irreducible many (pluralism). There are certain ways in which we humans generate a unity of the elements of formal, objects of our experience, yet the absolute unity to which monism is committed remains a perpetually vanishing ideal. In his seventh lecture, James identifies three dimensions of reality: (1) the objects of obesity factual experience; (2) relationships between our sensations and of formal essay our ideas and on childhood among our ideas; and (3) the entire network of truths to which we are committed at any given time.

Again, we see here a combination of subjectivity and pragmatic relevance that views reality as a process of development, which he calls “humanism” ( Pragmatism , pp. 7, 43-55, 62-69, 71, 73-74, 110-111, 115-116; see also Truth , pp. 100-101). James intended Some Problems of Philosophy to book reports school, be largely a textbook in case study on childhood, metaphysics, which he defines in terms of the ultimate principles of reality, both within and beyond our human experience. Much of it concerns the issue of the elements of formal essay, one and the many, which is arguably the oldest problem of Western philosophy and represents the split between collective monism (such as Hegel’s) and distributive pluralism (such as James himself advocates). Monism, pursued to its logical extreme, is deterministic, setting up a sharp dichotomy between what is necessary and what is impossible, while pluralism allows for possibilities that may, but need not, be realized. The former must be either optimistic or pessimistic in its outlook, depending on whether the future that is determined is seen as attractive or unattractive. In contrast, pluralism’s possibilities allow for a “melioristic” view of the future as possibly better, depending on choices we freely make. Case Study Obesity. Pluralism need not specify how much unnecessary possibility there is in the world; by contrast, monism must say that everything about the creative high school, future is locked in case study on childhood, from all eternity—to which pluralism says, “Ever not quite.” James is advocating what he calls the possibility of “novelty” in the world.

Pluralism, being melioristic, calls for our trusting in and cooperating with one another in order to essex, realize desirable possibilities that are not assured ( Problems , pp. 31, 114, 139-143, 205, 228-230). In his Essays in Radical Empiricism , James attempts to case on childhood obesity, distance himself from the philosophical dualism that sees physical reality (bodies) and essex spiritual reality (minds) as essentially distinct. He claims that the “philosophy of pure experience” is case on childhood obesity, more consonant with the theory of editing english novelty, indeterminism, moralism, and case study humanism that he advocates, though it is elements essay, less than clear why. We never experience mind in separation from body, and he dismisses as an illusion the notion of consciousness as substantial; however, he does not want to reject the on childhood, reality of mind as a materialist might do. So after years of opposing monism, he adopts an admittedly vague sort of case on childhood obesity neutral (neither materialistic nor idealistic) monism that sees thoughts and things as fundamentally the same stuff, the further definition of case which eludes us ( Empiricism , pp. 48, 115-117, 120). In the eighth lecture of Pragmatism , James sees monism as tending to a passive sort of quietism rather than to a vital life of active effort.

By contrast, pluralistic pragmatism emphasizes the possibilities that may be if we work to realize them. Monism determines the future optimistically as working out for the best, whatever we do, or pessimistically as working out for the worst, whatever we do. By contrast, pluralistic meliorism holds that it can get better if we freely try to make it so. Whether we embrace the elements of formal, option of freedom and moral responsibility or not is ultimately a matter of case on childhood personal faith rather than one of objective logic or scientific evidence ( Pragmatism , pp. 125, 127-128, 132). Like God and human immortality, the possibility of which James defends without firmly committing himself to believing in it ( Immortality , pp. 3, 6-7, 10-18, 20, 23-24, 28-31, 35-37, 39-41, 43-45), freedom is a postulate of rationality, an unprovable article of block faith.

James wrote an essay on the topic, called “The Dilemma of Determinism.” After admitting that human freedom is an old and shopworn topic about which we may suspect that nothing new can be said, and that he will not pretend to be able to case obesity, prove or disprove, he launches a pragmatic justification for believing in it. Indeterminism, the belief in freedom, holds that there is some degree of editing english possibility that is not necessitated by the rest of reality, while determinism must deny all such possibilities. These beliefs constitute exhaustive and mutually exclusive alternatives, so that if we reject either, we logically should accept the other. Let us consider a commonplace example such as walking home from campus. Before the fact neither the determinist nor the indeterminist can infallibly predict which path will be taken, but after the fact the determinist can irrefutably claim that the path taken was necessary, while the indeterminist can irrefutably claim that it was freely chosen.

Thus far, there is no advantage on study obesity either side. Book Reports School. But now consider the study obesity, example of a man gruesomely murdering his loving wife. We hear the awful details recounted and naturally regret what the wicked man did to her. Now, what are we to make of that regret from the essex, perspective of study obesity determinism? What sense can it make to regret what had to occur? From that perspective, we logically must embrace pessimism (all of reality is determined to be bad) or optimism (everything is of formal essay, destined to work out for the best) or subjectivism (good and evil are merely subjective interpretations we artificially cast on things). All of these can be logically coherent positions, but each of them minimizes the evil we experience in the world and trivializes our natural reaction of regret as pointless. From a practical (as opposed to a logical) point of view, can we live with that? James deliberately puts the point quite personally.

Though thoughtful and reflective pessimists, optimists, and subjectivists can live with it, he would not, because its pragmatic implications would render life not worth living. In that sense, determinism, though logically tenable, is obesity, pragmatically unacceptable, and James commits to indeterminism ( Will , pp. Editing English. 145-146, 150-152, 155-156, 160-161, 175-176, 178-179). In addition to case, God, immortality, and block cover freedom, moral duty is a fourth postulate of rationality. James offers us one remarkable essay on the topic, entitled “The Moral Philosopher and case the Moral Life.” He addresses three questions: (1) the psychological one, regarding the origins of editing english our moral values and judgments, (2) the metaphysical one, regarding the grounds of case meaning for our basic moral concepts, and (3) the of formal essay, casuistic one, regarding how we should order conflicting values.

First, our human nature comprises a capacity for an intuitive moral sense, but this must be developed in a context of case obesity values that socially evolve. Second, our basic moral concepts of good and bad, right and wrong, and so forth, are all person-relative, grounded in book reports high, the claims people make on their environment. Third, when values conflict, those which would seem to obesity, satisfy as many personal demands as possible, while frustrating the fewest, should have priority regardless of the nature of reports school those demands. This represents a pragmatic form of moral relativism, in which no action can be absolutely good or evil in case on childhood, all conceivable circumstances. Finally, James distinguishes between “the easy-going mood” that tries to avoid conflict, and elements “the strenuous mood” that strives to achieve ideals, apparently preferring the latter ( Will , pp. 185-186, 190, 194-195, 197, 201, 205, 209, 211).

In answering the question of case study obesity what is the primary objective of human life, James maintains that a natural answer is happiness. It is this, which motivates us to book, act and endure. Study On Childhood. Evolution is often seen as a progressive advance towards happiness ( Varieties , pp. 76, 85). The person who seems incapable of achieving it may well wonder whether life is worth living; suicide deciding that it is not. For James there is no absolute answer, and it is relative to the life being lived. A human life involves an ongoing series of possibilities. Some of these “maybes” may be realized if we believe in our own capacity to realize them; others will not be, either because we do not try or because we try and pay to your essay fail.

Life can become worth living if we believe that it is and act on that belief, our commitment giving it meaning ( Will , pp. 37, 59-62). Our happiness seems to require that we have ideals, that we strive to achieve them, and that we think we are making some progress towards doing so ( Talks , pp. 185-189). a. Individuals and Their Communities. James’s philosophy is case study, so individualistic that it does not allow for a robust theory of community. Still, he offers us some interesting insights and one great paper. “Great Men and Their Environment” views one’s society as not only a context in which great individuals emerge, but even as playing a selective role in allowing their greatness to develop. In turn, that social environment is affected by them. Creative Book Reports High School. Whether or not an individual will be able to have an impact is, to some extent, determined by society. Thus socially significant individuals and their communities have a dynamic, correlative relationship. Case Study On Childhood Obesity. In a follow-up article, “The Importance of creative reports high Individuals,” he maintains that agents of social change, beyond being gifted in some way(s), tend to take greater advantage of given circumstances than more ordinary persons do ( Will , pp.

225-226, 229-230, 232, 259). In the last decade of his life, following the Spanish-American War, in which Theodore Roosevelt, his former student, was the hero, James gave a talk at case study obesity the banquet of the case study obesity, Universal Peace Congress. Regarding human nature as essentially antagonistic, he warns against our permanent tendencies to mass violence and the romantic idealization of war. We have to case, forever be on our guard to resist those dangerous, destructive tendencies; however, he doubts that humanity will ever be able to achieve universal disarmament and peace. Reports School. What we can and should do is case study obesity, work to minimize conflicts and to phd thesis, resolve them non-violently. Case Study On Childhood Obesity. The great paper James wrote in the area of social relations, written just a few years before the editing english, outbreak of World War I and first published the month he died, is “The Moral Equivalent of War.” In it he warns of the case study obesity, extreme challenge of suppressing our martial tendencies. Warfare has become so costly, in creative book high, terms of treasure and case study obesity carnage, thanks to elements essay, modern technology, that we need to on childhood obesity, find some way of rechanneling the primitive tendencies inherited from write your our ancestors.

How can we create an atmosphere in which peace is the norm rather than that interim period between wars? Identifying himself as a “pacifist,” he nevertheless admits that there are desirable human qualities—such as patriotism, loyalty, social solidarity, and national vigor—that have traditionally been nurtured by war and the preparation for conducting it. The question at hand is whether a “moral equivalent” might be found that would generate such martial virtues without involving the horrible destructiveness of war. Since wars are the results of human choices rather than fatalistically determined, he anticipates a time when they will be formally outlawed among civilized societies. But then how can these martial virtues still be nurtured?

His answer is that we should draft young adults into national service, as opposed to military service, fighting against study on childhood obesity, adverse natural conditions rather than against fellow human beings, working for case study, a time in coal mines, on constructing roads, and so forth. Thus they could cultivate those desirable qualities by serving society in a way that would yield good consequences rather than more suffering ( Studies , pp. 300-301, 303-306, 267, 269, 275-276, 280, 283, 286-292). c. Democratic Tolerance and study on childhood Social Progress. In “What Makes a Life Significant,” James advocates the creative high, move towards mutual non-interference with people who are not threatening us with violence.

Tolerance of others is an antidote to cruelty and injustice. Case On Childhood Obesity. He maintains that the trend of social evolution is in the direction of democratic progress. Yet this trend requires effort, and its continuation poses challenges for creative book school, us, including that of striving for a more equitable distribution of wealth ( Talks , pp. Case On Childhood. 170, 178, 189). His commitments to essex phd thesis, individual freedom, mutual respect, peaceful interrelationships, and tolerance converge to point us in the direction of progressing towards what he calls “the intellectual republic” ( Will , p. 30).

This is the pragmatically beneficial ideal towards which social progress can take us, if we have faith in it and commit ourselves to acting on that belief.

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Essay/Term paper: Sickle cell anemia. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the on childhood obesity guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Biology: Sickle Cell Anemia , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. Block Cover? While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and case obesity, grade. Block Cover? The sickle cell disease is an inherited blood. disorder that affects red blood cells. People with. sickle cell have red blood cells that have mostly. hemoglobin's, Sometimes these red blood cells. become sickle-shaped or crescent shaped and. have trouble going through small blood vessels. Case Obesity? When sickle-shaped cells block small blood. vessels, less blood can get to that part of the. body.

Tissue that does not get a normal blood. flow eventually becomes damaged.This is what. causes the problems of sickle cell disease.As to. this day there is really no cure for sickle cell. disease.Red blood cells take oxygen from the air. we breathe into our lungs to all parts of the letter body. Case Study Obesity? Oxygen is carried in red blood cells by a. substance called hemoglobin(Hemoglobin ?#8220; is the. Elements? main substance of the red blood cell. It helps red. blood cells carry oxygen from the air in our lungs. to all parts of the body). Study Obesity? Normal red blood cells. contain hemoglobin A. Hemoglobin S and. hemoglobin C are abnormal types of. hemoglobin.Oxygen is carried in red blood cells. by a substance called hemoglobin.The main. hemoglobin in normal red blood cells is. hemoglobin A. Normal red blood cells are soft. and round and can squeeze through tiny blood. tubes (vessels). Normally, red blood cells live for. about editing english 120 days before new ones replace. them.People with sickle cell conditions make a. different form of hemoglobin A called hemoglobin. S (S stands for study, sickle). Red blood cells containing. mostly hemoglobin S do not live as long as normal. red blood cells (normally about 16 days). They. also become stiff, distorted in shape and have. Letter? difficulty passing through the body's small blood. vessels. When sickle-shaped cells block small. blood vessels, less blood can get to that part of. the body.

Tissue that does not receive a normal. blood flow eventually becomes damaged. This is. what causes the complications of case obesity, sickle cell. disease. There are several types of editing english, sickle cell. disease. The most common are: Sickle Cell. Anemia (SS), Sickle-Hemoglobin C Disease. (SC)Sickle Beta-Plus Thalassemia and Sickle. Beta-Zero Thalassemia. Sickle Cell trait (AS) is. an inherited condition in which both hemoglobin A. and S are made in the red blood cells, there are. always more A than S. Case Study? Sickle cell trait is not a. Editing English? type of case study on childhood, sickle cell disease. People with sickle cell. Pay To Write Your? trait are generally healthy. Case On Childhood? Sickle cell conditions. are inherited from parents in much the same way. Essex? as blood type, hair color and texture, eye color. and other physical things. The types of hemoglobin. a person makes in the red blood cells depend. upon what hemoglobin genes the person inherits. from his or her parents.

Like most genes, hemoglobin genes are inherited in two sets…one. from each parent(Ex. If one parent has Sickle Cell. Case Study On Childhood Obesity? Anemia and the other is Normal, all of the children. will have sickle cell trait. 4 If one parent has sickle. cell anemia and the other has sickle cell trait, there. is a 50% chance (or 1 out of 2) of having a baby. with either sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait. with each pregnancy,When both parents have. sickle cell trait, they have a 25% chance (1 of 4) of having a baby with sickle cell disease with each. pregnancy). HOW DO YOU KNOW IF YOU. HAVE THIS TRAIT A SIMPLE PAINLESS. BLOOD TEST followed by a laboratory. technique called Hemoglobin Electrophoresis will. determine the type of hemoglobin you have. Case Study? When. you pass an electric charge through a solution of. hemoglobin, distinct hemoglobins move different. distances, depending on their composition.

This. technique differentiates between normal. On Childhood? hemoglobin (A), Sickle hemoglobin (S), and other. different kinds of case obesity, hemoglobin (such as C, D, E,). Medical Problems Sickle cells are destroyed. Case Study On Childhood Obesity? rapidly in the body of essex, people with the disease. Study On Childhood Obesity? causing anemia, jaundice and the formation of. gallstones. The sickle cells also block the flow of. Pay To Write Your Essay? blood through vessels resulting in lung tissue. damage (acute chest syndrome), pain episodes. Case On Childhood? (arms, legs, chest and abdomen), stroke and. priapism (painful prolonged erection). It also. causes damage to most organs including the. spleen, kidneys and liver. Damage to the spleen. makes sickle cell disease patients, especially. young children, easily overwhelmed by certain. bacterial infections. TREATMENT Health. Editing English? maintenance for obesity, patients with sickle cell disease. starts with early diagnosis, preferably in the. newborn period and includes penicillin. prophylaxis, vaccination against pneumococcus. bacteria and folic acid supplementation. Treatment. of complications often includes antibiotics, pain. Elements Essay? management, intravenous fluids, blood transfusion. and surgery all backed by psychosocial support.

Like all patients with chronic disease patients are. Study On Childhood? best managed in a comprehensive. multi-disciplinary program of care. Promising. Treatment Developments In search for a. substance that can prevent red blood cells from. sickling without causing harm to other parts of the. body, hydroxyurea was found to reduce the. frequency of severe pain, acute chest syndrome. and the case study on childhood need for case study, blood transfusions in adult. Block Letter? patients with sickle cell disease. Hydroxyurea is a. well-known drug, however its use in sickle cell. Study Obesity? disease is relatively new and case study on childhood obesity, must be approached. with caution. Short-term side effects must be. carefully monitored and long-term effects are still. unknown POTENTIAL SAVINGS FROM USE. OF HYDROXYUREA Estimated total U.S. sickle cell patients 65,000. Percent with severe. pain 3-5 times per year 5.2%. Estimated number. with frequent severe pain 3,380. Assuming the. average annual number of episodes 4. The total. number of severe pain episodes in these patients.

13,520. Assuming that 50% episodes result in. hospitalization 6,760 . Assuming the average days. of hospitalization 5 . Estimated total number of. hospital days for these patients 33,800. Assuming. cost per day $800. Total hospitalization costs for. these patients $27,040,000. Obesity? Potential savings from. use of hydroxyurea in these patients in one year. $13,520,000.

Estimates of sickle cell disease. Editing English? patients in the U.S. is now over 70,000. In the US. there were approximately 65,000. On Childhood Obesity? African-Americans suffering from sickle-cell. disease. There were about 5,500 British sufferers. Worldwide, 100,000 babies are born with the. disease annually. Sickle cell anemia results when a. person inherits two genes for study, sickle hemoglobin, and is homozygous for the mutation. American-Africans are the case study most likly to book school develope. sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin is composed of. two pairs of peptide chains: two alpha chains and. two beta chains. Sickle hemoglobin results from study on childhood obesity a. point mutation in the beta-globin gene.

This single. nucleotide change produces a single amino acid. change: a glutamic acid at position 6 has been. changed to a valine, according to the following. schedule. High? COOH CH - (CH2)2-COOH Glutamic. acid / NH2 COOH CH3 | CH - CH-CH3 Valine. / NH2 Glutamic acid is, as the name says, an. acidic amino acid, which means it will have a. negative charge under normal body conditions and. thus likes to be surrounded by water molecules. Valine, on the other hand, is a neutral, or. uncharged, amino acid. Under normal conditions it. behaves like a hydrophobic, organic molecule and. wants to hide from case water. This difference makes. the globin chains of pay to write your essay, hemoglobin fold differently, especially in the absence of oxygen.

Normal. hemoglobin just gives up its oxygen when it gets to. the tissue that needs it, but it retains its shape. Sickle hemoglobin, on the other hand, loses its. oxygen, and becomes relatively insoluble. In the. deoxygenated form, it forms into long arrays that. come out the case on childhood obesity shape of the red cell and produce. the characteristic sickling that characterizes the. disease. The insolubility of deoxygenated. (reduced) sickle hemoglobin is the basis of two. rapid diagnostic laboratory tests for sickle cell. anemia. Scientists recently have had some limited. success in using genetic engineering techniques to. get good copies of the beta globin gene into. people with sickle cell anemia.

If they can succeed. in this endeavor, people with the disease may be. cured but will still be able to pass the genes onto.

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Case study Childhood obesity

Cosmetic Surgery Essay Essays and study, Research Papers. Cosmetic Surgery Com150 Effective Essay Writing April 28, 2009 Cosmetic . Surgery is a widely accepted practice among men and letter, women. You can have anything done to yourself as long as you have the money. With the case obesity advancement in on childhood, today's technology, more men and women are flocking to have expensive cosmetic procedures done. The percentage of on childhood obesity, men and elements of formal essay, women getting some type of surgery done to themselves are drastically different. Women have the highest number on the chart for having cosmetic. Breast implant , General surgery , Microsurgery 1597 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery Effective Essay Writing/COM/150 Cosmetic Surgery “She got . her good looks from her father.

He’s a plastic surgeon.” Groucho Marx. “I definitely believe in plastic surgery . Study On Childhood Obesity. I don’t want to be an old hag. There’s no fun in that.” Scarlett Johansson. “I wish I had a twin, so I could know what I’d look like without plastic surgery .” Joan Rivers. These are quotes from famous people about cosmetic surgery . Some have had cosmetic surgery and some have not. This essay. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1942 Words | 6 Pages. Should cosmetic surgery be encouraged to the general public? Cosmetic surgery is defined as “any . medical operation which is intended to improve a person’s appearance rather than their health” (Cambridge Dictionary, 2003, p.275).

By definition, cosmetic surgery is essex, a common practice used to modify the case physical outlook of elements of formal, people, especially for women. This is study on childhood obesity, definitely a luxury, which is essex, not necessary to study on childhood the public. Starting from the 20th century, however, cosmetic surgery is reports, no longer a luxury. Adolescence , Aesthetics , Beauty 1516 Words | 4 Pages. had a twin, so I could know what I'd look like without plastic surgery ” a quote by Joan Rivers taken from (2008). . Today’s society puts so much emphasis on what the case study on childhood media considers beauty that even Hollywood stars are unfortunately going to extremes to keep their appearances to what is considered beautiful. Even though forms of high school, cosmetic surgery are medically necessary such as reconstructive surgery , cosmetic surgery has become a large issue in study obesity, today’s society because some believe. Breast implant , General surgery , Liposuction 946 Words | 3 Pages.

? Catastrophe of cover letter, Cosmetic Surgery : Effects of Cosmetic Surgery on Health and Financial . Status Proposal Catastrophe of Cosmetic Surgery : Effects of Cosmetic Surgery on study, Health and Financial Status Today, for both males and reports high, females, physical beauty is an case study obesity important aspect of elements of formal, their life. Actually, nobody is perfect, but many people want their beauty enhanced to be more perfect. Case Study Obesity. As a result, they are ready to creative undergo hurt to get that perfect look. With “cutting edge technology”. Breast implant , Breast reconstruction , Hand surgery 2723 Words | 3 Pages. Expository Essay on Cosmetic Surgery Nicole Lynne Simko University of case, Phoenix COM150: Effective . Essay Writing November 4th, 2011 High school for many teenagers can be a very difficult time, trying to fit in book school, and becoming part of the popular crowd. Many teenagers experience low self esteem issues, what is the case study on childhood solution to a young adult’s self esteem problems?

Cosmetic Surgery has been known to help older adults feel confident again, so why not provide teenagers with the same solution. Breast implant , Breast reconstruction , Hospital 1817 Words | 5 Pages. PLASTIC SURGERY : a way to become beautiful or someone’s unhealthy idea? With passing time, the urge to phd thesis become beautiful is increasing in case on childhood, . everyone’s life. Book Reports High. Is the requirement just in our heads or is it truly needed. Case Study Obesity. Does everyone have a right to be beautiful and look more attractive?

Most of us would say yes. Everyone wants to block cover letter be good-looking and pretty. Nowadays looks and appearances seem to be the basic requirement in every person and hold much more importance compared to a person’s abilities and. General surgery , Hand surgery , Hospital 2029 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmetic surgery is case study on childhood obesity, very popular and cover letter, not because people need surgery , but because society has made the perfect . person and obesity, everyone is trying to be that. Block Cover. Cosmetic surgery is the new hip thing going around and it isn’t always a good thing. In my essay I’m going to discuss the case study on childhood obesity history of cosmetic surgery . I will discuss how it came about and of formal, how it has grew over the years. We will discuss how popular it has become with reality TV shows and obesity, Hollywood stars. And last talk about the pros and cons of getting.

Breast implant , General surgery , Hospital 1041 Words | 3 Pages. development of plastic surgery in recent years has opened larger opportunities for essay health care professionals to offer a wide range of services . to its customers, while the study obesity growing popularity and high demand on the services of plastic surgeons stimulated the rapid development of study on childhood, this field of medicine worldwide. according to Thompson (2011). Case On Childhood. In fact, he continued nowadays, plastic surgery becomes accessible to study a larger number of case study on childhood obesity, people and, instead of the elitist surgery available to only a limited. General surgery , Hand surgery , Hospital 640 Words | 3 Pages. There is various form of essex, cosmetic surgery that can range from obesity, minor surgery that is non- invasive treatment- which . could be anything from fat injection, collagen or even Botox. Then there are major surgeries that consists of body contouring- which can be anything from liposuction, breast lifts or even breast reduction. No matter how minor or major the surgery is there can be risks or complications involved. Even though all surgery has risks, proper research of cosmetic surgery can lower the risks and. Breast , Breast reconstruction , Breast reduction 1115 Words | 3 Pages. un-realistic body ideals, and they turn to elements essay cosmetic surgery to seek ‘perfection’.

I wanted to research why so many women want to . Case Obesity. under go the knife, what dangers are involved, and why cosmetic surgery receives bad publicity. I also wanted to elements of formal see weather cosmetic surgery is used for any other reasons than vanity. Above all I wanted to see if the negatives out case, weighed the positives and write your, if cosmetic surgery should be banned or not. Why do so many women want cosmetic surgery ? According to study on childhood Louisa Peacock, the. Breast , Breast implant , General surgery 832 Words | 3 Pages. The Negative and Positive Effects of Cosmetic Surgery Are you considering cosmetic surgery ? . The numbers of individuals electing these surgeries are growing rapidly each year. Much of this rapid growth is because of advances in technology that have made plastic surgery techniques both safer and more affordable, as well as cutting down on recovery time. Cosmetic surgery improves body image and self-esteem and reconstructive surgery fixes irregularities such as hereditary disorders, birth. General surgery , Hospital , Microsurgery 1258 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery on study on childhood, Teenagers Shirrena E. Perkins Course: COM/150 February 28, 2010 . Grace Clausing Table of Contents • Introduction • Body and Mind Still Developing During Teenage Years • Is It All Right To Seek Surgery With Unrealistic Expectations • Regrets • Legal or Illegal • Conclusion Introduction A desire among teenagers to undergo cosmetic surgery has been on obesity, a rapid rise. This can mostly be contributed.

Adolescence , Breast implant , Hospital 1851 Words | 6 Pages. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Most people want to be more beautiful than other people. They are always seeking the case on childhood “beauty”, which . makes them believe that they will be happier. Case On Childhood Obesity. That is elements, why there is more and more people using plastic surgery as a solution. Those patients have a variety of ages and case study on childhood, sexes. It can be ranged from twenty to fifty-five or over. It is essay, included both sexual: males and females. There are thousands of reasons for case study on childhood them to see a plastic surgery doctor. They may want to look younger. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1568 Words | 4 Pages. The Hidden Dangers Of Cosmetic Surgery “I wish I had a twin, so I could know what I'd look like without cosmetic . surgery ” a quote by Joan Rivers.

She is an American famous person who has done so many cosmetic surgeries . Rivers most likely said this quote because she regretted about all of the essex phd thesis cosmetic surgeries that she had. Cosmetic Surgery is case study on childhood obesity, a phenomenon that has increased over the past few years and became popular in everywhere on the world. Moreover, many people have been thinking of on childhood, doing. Addiction , Anesthesia , Emotion 1245 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery All types of cosmetic surgeries are on the rise. Study. Young people and write, old people around . the world are having all types of cosmetic procedure done at some point in their lives. The media portrays beauty in a certain way, which causes people to feel pressured to look a certain way. Why else would a person decide to go under the on childhood knife? Even people with medical conditions or some type of disfiguration want to be accepted in society and essex, be normal without being judged because of their physical.

Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1958 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery – a blessing or a curse? When you have a look at the women on the streets, and case study on childhood, it is so hard to find no one . with heavy make-up; when you are watching through the newspaper, and elements, you will never stop to see large number of advertisements on cosmetics surgery , none of study on childhood obesity, them focus on natural beauty. As we all know, chasing beauty is the essay natural instinct of women, and the advancement in technology allows the women to have a different change in their appearance through cosmetic surgery. Aesthetics , Beauty , Human physical appearance 1044 Words | 3 Pages. While cosmetic surgery has been happening since ancient times, it has only recently become accepted by most. Television . programs that promote cosmetic surgery as a positive industry; “I Want a Famous Face” on MTV,“Nip/ Tuck” on FX, and “Dr. 90210” on Hulu, to on childhood expose the public to cover a business once kept on the down low. Reality television embraces these due to its shock ­value and entertainment to the audience, in result the public is becoming more and more relaxed to the idea of plastic surgery . A. Chin augmentation , General surgery , Hospital 1489 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery The way a woman handles herself is important, according to most Americans.

Furthermore, the way a woman looks . on the outside surpasses all other qualities. Most women do not realize this, but this is the way in which they place their importance. In a world filled with superficiality, it is case study on childhood, not astonishing to editing english think that most women are un-satisfied with their outward appearance. Case On Childhood Obesity. Unhappiness with one’s outward appearance has lead to phd thesis cosmetic surgery being the only solution. Cosmetic. Craniofacial surgery , General surgery , Hospital 1095 Words | 3 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery Have you ever thought about how much cosmetic surgery has progressed and . all the different types of surgeries ? Cosmetic surgery is the practice of reshaping body tissues. It is also known as plastic surgery . Plastic is derived from the Greek word Plastikos meaning “to mold.” Plastic surgery dates all the obesity way back 3000 years ago, to block letter the Ancient Egyptians, Indians, and Greeks.

We may not recognize that people back then used a form of plastic surgery , but they did. Case On Childhood Obesity. Centuries. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic surgery is not solving the problem at route. The problem is the perception that the mind has on what is elements, important. All . On Childhood Obesity. cosmetic surgery is doing is changing the appearance but not the mental state. Someone who has such a mental disposition to editing english these illnesses will have their offending extremity changed, but they will ultimately always find something they are not happy with. Instead of cosmetic surgery , these people should be offered psychological help. Case Study. Cosmetic surgery only masks the inner. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1789 Words | 5 Pages. Pros and Cons of editing english, Cosmetic Surgery.

In a society focused on case study on childhood, looks one may hastily consider cosmetic surgery to fix an abnormal nose or shed a few unwanted pounds. . Is it worth it? What are the risks versus rewards? In this essay I will explore the essex phd thesis pros as well as the cons of cosmetic surgery because as with many choices in life, there are many risks as well as rewards. Cosmetic surgery originated in ancient India, but became more prominent starting with the First World War. Obesity. Medical professionals started exploring new techniques. General surgery , Hospital , Liposuction 1049 Words | 3 Pages. The Growing Popularity of block cover, Cosmetic Surgery. can cosmetic surgeons always guarantee you a successful result? Are you prepared to bear the risk of any surgical failure? Over the past few . decades, cosmetic surgery has already gained mainstream acceptance, particularly in well-developed countries, such as the obesity United States, Japan and South Korea. It is essex phd thesis, thought to be a miracle to fulfill perfection.

Such fallacies have overlooked the negative impacts of cosmetic surgery have on case study, patients. This paper aims to explore the phenomenon of cosmetic surgery. General surgery , Hand surgery , Hospital 1101 Words | 4 Pages. History of Cosmetic /Plastic Surgery COM150 Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with on the . correction or restoring of external damage to the body. The word plastic comes from the Greek plastikos meaning to mold or to shape (Answers, 2010). Cosmetic surgery involves techniques to enhance the appearance through surgical and block cover letter, medical techniques. On Childhood Obesity. I will also investigate the of formal most popular surgery procedures of the last couple years. Do you wonder how this type of surgery went from. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1667 Words | 6 Pages. The huge success of the cosmetic surgery business, it gets me to case study obesity think if anti-aging actually means anti-human. It is editing english, true . Case. that mostly every woman would prefer not to get any type of write essay, surgery done to their bodies, but feel it is the only way of case study obesity, erasing their age from the outside.

While there is nothing wrong with using a lotion to keep skin smooth and editing english, hydrated, how far are some women willing to go in order to look younger than they actually are? Cosmetic surgery in North America continues. Ageing , Craniofacial surgery , Gerontology 2594 Words | 7 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery Be Informed Everyone has looked in the mirror and found something they want to study obesity fix. . Cosmetic surgery can boost self esteem, and give confidence it seems the essex pain associated is on childhood obesity, secondary. Many people are willing to take the involved risks even though complications can arise.

Cosmetic surgery changes the appearance by editing english altering parts of the body that function normally but do not look the desired way. Cosmetic surgery has been laden with unrealistic demands and sometimes legal. Breast implant , Breast reconstruction , Hospital 1516 Words | 5 Pages. ?Marketing In Terms of Cosmetic Surgery Should Be Avoided Introduction Marketing is a vital part of business operation to case study obesity . maximize benefits, especially for service providing business. However, in spite of the editing english extremely large profits marketing brings, is study on childhood obesity, it always so positive a function that it should never be avoided, or even banned? A certain amount of creative book reports high, research on the nature of case obesity, marketing and how it works to affect individuals and obesity, businesses has been conducted. However, whether it is always a best. Business , General surgery , Marketing 1725 Words | 7 Pages. Critique Essay: Cosmetic Surgery and Individual Identity. the Modern Face: Cosmetic Surgery , Social Research, Spring 2000. Study. The American culture that produced cosmetic . surgery is the letter increasingly visual, psychologically influenced culture of the twentieth century United States.

For those surgeons who perform cosmetic surgery , the relationship between the physical face and the construction of case, individual identity has always been and continues to be central. In our modern twentieth century United States, our attitudes toward cosmetic surgery have been based. General surgery , Hospital , Microsurgery 1380 Words | 4 Pages. changing when the humankind are under the pressure of one addiction. There are many causes of cosmetic surgeries addiction . leading to negative effects and compose appropriate solutions. Editing English. In the specific case of the cosmetic surgery addiction, different factors as social status, idea of beauty, self-steem, and, even, social pressure are its most definitive causes. According to Berrios and Kan (1996), cosmetic surgery addiction is a type of case on childhood, psychological disease, which makes people concerned a lot with body. Addiction , Anxiety , Avoidant personality disorder 1714 Words | 5 Pages. ? Cosmetic Surgery among women: Cause and Effect Table of Contents: Introduction . Page 2 Causes of Cosmetic Surgery (by Hilda) Page 3 Physical Damage after Cosmetic Surgery (by Bonnie) Page 4 Psychological Effects of Cosmetic Surgery (by Ashley) Page 5 Conclusion Page 6 Works Cited . Body dysmorphic disorder , Breast implant , Causality 1283 Words | 7 Pages. Effects of Cosmetic Surgery In today’s society the reports high school way we look is everything. There are specific standards for someone to be . considered as beautiful.

These standards include being young, tall and thin or curvy with perfect hair, flawless skin, voluptuous lips, and pearly white teeth. Society is highly influenced by magazines such as Vogue and Cosmopolitan, which are well known for featuring top fashion models with pretty faces and slim waists. Many people are turning to cosmetic surgery to fit in. Abdominoplasty , Barbie , Hospital 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Review of the Literature Of the 223,000 cosmetic surgeries in 2003 on patients who were 18 years old or younger, 39,000 of case on childhood obesity, them . were breast augmentation, nose reshaping, and letter, liposuction. Many parents are giving their teenage daughters breast implants for gifts.

However, parents and teens do not take into case on childhood, consideration that teens' bodies are still developing (Zuckerman, 2005). As the adolescent's body grows, body parts that seem to block large or too small can become proportionate (Izenberg, 2004). Adolescence , Breast , Breast implant 857 Words | 3 Pages. Teen Cosmetic Surgery Cosmetic Surgery is often done to case obesity improve physical flaws or to cover letter achieve . an ideality in society. In the United States, cosmetic surgery is an on childhood important concern. Nearly 219,000 procedures were performed as of 2010 (“Plastic Surgery ” 1). The risks involved with cosmetic surgery can sometimes lead to creative high school death. Many scientists believe that cosmetic surgery is dangerous for developing teenagers.

However, others say that teens can gain confidence from case on childhood obesity, cosmetic surgery and it can. Breast , Microsurgery , Otoplasty 999 Words | 3 Pages. Should Cosmetic Surgery Be Banned? Should Cosmetic Surgery Be Banned? Introduction Nowadays, cosmetic surgery has become more popular . for modern people. Some people believe that it is a science to improve the beauty of elements of formal essay, a person.

On the other hand, there are some people disagree with it. People said that cosmetic surgery involves risk which may cause serious diseases such as heart attack. Both of the side have their own reasonable reason based on should or should not ban cosmetic surgery . Agree to case study obesity ban the cosmetic surgery Point. Breast , Breast implant , Hospital 750 Words | 3 Pages. The Many Sides of Cosmetic Surgery. There are many different reasons why people of all ages, race, and sex get cosmetic surgery today. The majority of people in . today’s society get it done because they want to enhance their personal appearance. There are many types of editing english, surgeries performed today that are used to boost self-confidence such as, breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, liposuction, Botox, and other implants. There is a wide variety of surgeries out there that can change anything you want modified about yourself. As people get. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1673 Words | 5 Pages.

The Side Effects of Cosmetic Surgery. The Side Effects of Cosmetic Surgery Reading and Writing Level 4 Kirsten Ringstrom April 14, 2009 Table of case study obesity, Contents 1 . Introduction 2 The History of Cosmetic Surgery 3 The Trends of Cosmetic Surgeries 4 The Risks of Cosmetic Surgery 5 Conclusion References Throughout recorded history, a pale complexion has nearly always been more fashionable than a tan complexion because pale skin represents a woman who does not have to pay to labour outdoors. Case Study On Childhood. So, most non-white women probably wanted. Breast implant , General surgery , Hospital 1317 Words | 5 Pages. Risks and Benefits of Cosmetic Surgery. Risks and editing english, Benefits of case, Cosmetic Surgery Nichole Johns University of Phoenix Axia College Risks and Benefits of high, . Cosmetic Surgery What is cosmetic surgery ? Cosmetic surgery is a process of one or more surgical procedures that are used to case on childhood restore or enhance the appearance of different parts of the write body.

Cosmetic Surgery is a specialty field that is growing in the medical profession. The number of cosmetic surgery procedures performed in the United States increased by nearly 1 million from. Breast implant , Hospital , Liposuction 1268 Words | 4 Pages. planning to have a cosmetic procedure? There are many things that a person considering having a procedure should know. Case Study Obesity. Cosmetic . surgery has been practiced for many years however, it is dangerous and many people face addiction. Creative Book Reports. Before having a cosmetic procedure it is important to case know all the facts. Editing English. Cosmetic surgery being so popular, many people are not aware that there are two types of plastic surgery : Cosmetic plastic surgery and Reconstructive plastic surgery . Cosmetic surgery is the improvement. Breast reconstruction , General surgery , Hospital 1593 Words | 5 Pages. A rESEACH PAPER | AGAINST COSMETIC SUGERY | ENC 1102Instructor: Luse | | By Maria Garzon | 3/25/2013 | Background and Thesis . Opponents have historically overlooked the primary reasons for study on childhood it’s against to plastic surgery . It promotes a continuing descent into all things vain.

Rather than accepting their perceived flaws, growing, and developing character, they take a chance going under the knife. Plastic surgery rarely produces the desired results and creates unhealthier obsession with. General surgery , Hand surgery , Hospital 2045 Words | 6 Pages. Teenagers and Comsetic Surgery Joyce Jenkins Com 150 May 30, 2010 Angela Robles Teenagers and Cosmetic . Surgery In our society today, what our bodies look like is a big money making thing. Therefore, being a teenager and have plenty of essex phd thesis, money brings us to having cosmetic surgery done to our beautiful bodies. The three factors that teens should consider when getting cosmetic surgery are peer pressure, the credentials and reputation of the doctor and finally the cost. The peer pressure that. Adolescence , Hospital , Human body 1077 Words | 3 Pages. TEENAGE COSMETIC SURGERY How young should some one be before they are ready to case on childhood have cosmetic . surgery ? According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reports “the number of girls eight-teen and elements, younger getting cosmetic surgeries , such as breast augmentations has nearly tripled from 3,872 in the year of 2002 to 11,326 in the year of case study on childhood, 2003“ ( Farrell 1 ). The increasing number of teenage girls under twenty having cosmetic surgeries should be aware of the risks, know that their bodies. Adolescence , Breast , Breast reconstruction 1858 Words | 5 Pages.

worth it. Elements. What really is beauty, and obesity, why are people so obsessed with it? These days there is a cosmetic procedure to case on childhood obesity fix any kind of issue that . Case Study Obesity. someone thinks they need to have, anything ranging from getting cosmetic dentistry work to getting liposuction. Today, people are under the impression that they have to do whatever it takes to be “perfect” even if that means going through extensive cosmetic surgery . People should embrace who they are for what God made them to be. Pay To Write Your. A celebrity is who everyone. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 2112 Words | 6 Pages. “I am totally against on childhood plastic surgery . A lot of people think I have breast implants because I have the biggest boobs in phd thesis, the business. But I was . Case Obesity. a 34C when I was 17…They stay up when I wear a push-up bra. But if people could see me when I come home and take off my bra, how could they think these are fake?” This is the block cover letter famed quote from the famed retired supermodel/talk show host, Tyra Banks, an epitome of case study on childhood obesity, natural beauty.

Harvard Medical School psychologist Nancy Etcoff says in creative book high, “Survival of the Prettiest. Body modification , Breast , Breast implant 764 Words | 3 Pages. beautiful and happy, one must look like these images. To most, the easiest way to achieve this is my having cosmetic surgery . performed. With the change of times, also has come the advancement of medical procedures, yet how safe can a person be who is having cosmetic surgery performed on case, their body. No matter how good the technological advancements, there is always the risk of not only the surgery resulting in unwanted outcomes but in some cases death. Society today has brain washed not.

General surgery , Hospital , Liposuction 1538 Words | 5 Pages. Plastic/ Cosmetic Surgery Plastic surgery is a special branch of surgery that deals with the medical . correction of a person's form and structure. The word plastic comes from the letter Greek word plastikos which means to mold or to case study on childhood shape. So, plastic surgery basically means surgery that brings about a re-shaping of a part of the body. A popular procedure in ancient Rome was scar removal, particularly scars on the back which were marks of shame because they suggested a man had turned his back in editing english, battle. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1108 Words | 3 Pages. In 2003, more than 223 000 cosmetic procedures were performed on case obesity, patients 18 years of age or younger and editing english, almost 39 000 were surgical procedures . such as nose reshaping, breast lifts, breast augmentation, liposuction, and tummy tucks [1].

As we consider under what circumstances plastic surgery is appropriate for teens, it is important to on childhood recognize that very few studies have been conducted to creative high school examine the risks for teens of these increasingly common procedures. Research is especially needed for the more. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Task A) Cosmetic surgery on case study, teenagers OUTLINE Text 1 and 2 The overarching subjects to of formal essay which we are introduced in . texts one and two is, without doubt, the study on childhood focus (or rather the criticism) on the many and more to come plastic/ cosmetic surgeries on adolescent girls and editing english, boys. Case Study On Childhood Obesity. Subjects appearing in block, the texts are for case on childhood obesity example, Valerie Ulene’s view on the increased procedures of plastic surgery , while Dr.

John Canedy raises the question; does plastic surgery have a positive mental outcome, or. Breast implant , General surgery , Hospital 1069 Words | 4 Pages. girls 18 years and younger had surgical and cosmetic procedures done to creative book reports enhance, alter, or fix body parts that were seen as awkward and obesity, . unfitting (Preface to). For many girls, growing up in the ever-changing social world can be very over-rated. With constant pressure being thrown at editing english, girls from television, magazines, commercial ads, and movies it is case on childhood, not a surprise that many believe their only option is permanent cosmetic alteration. Opting for plastic surgery can leave very harmful, even permanent damage. Breast , Breast implant , General surgery 1695 Words | 5 Pages.

Cosmetic Surgery and Its Affect on the World Today. their eyes, it has become nearly an creative book reports epidemic. Study. Plastic surgery is a medical procedure invented to improve an individual’s physical . appearance or to pay to write minimize scarring resulting from accidents, disease or birth defects as well as disfigurement. The word plastic is case on childhood, derived from the of formal essay Greek, meaning molding or giving form. Included in plastic surgery is cosmetic surgery , which can be used to reshape your face or body features. Cosmetic surgery is designed to improve an individual's appearance. Some women. General surgery , Hospital , Human physical appearance 962 Words | 3 Pages. Should People Get Cosmetic Surgery? Should People Get Cosmetic Surgery ? Overview: Cosmetic surgery has become more popular for modern . people.

Some people believe that it is a science to increase the beauty of case, a person. The basic aim of essex, this surgery is to enhance the case study on childhood obesity appearance of the individual that is done by altering the parts of the body. On the other hand, other people disagree with it. They say that cosmetic surgery involves risk which may cause serious side effects and diseases. In the recent years the editing english technology and concept. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 686 Words | 3 Pages. Reseach Essay : Plastic Surgery Plastic . Case On Childhood Obesity. surgery Plastic surgery is editing english, a medical specialty concerned with the case obesity correction or restoration of form and reports high school, function. Case Study. Though cosmetic or aesthetic surgery is the best-known kind of plastic surgery , most plastic surgery is not cosmetic ; plastic surgery includes many types of reconstructive surgery , hand surgery , microsurgery, and editing english, the treatment of burns. General surgery , Hand surgery , Microsurgery 1400 Words | 4 Pages. Reading (II) 22 March 2011 Persuasion Essay ( Cosmetic Surgery ) Outline I. INTRODUCTION 1. Case Study Obesity. Background . Information: For modern people, cosmetic surgery nowadays has become more and more popular.

Some people believe that it is a technique to raise the beauty of a person. The basic intention of this surgery is to enhance the appearance of the individual by changing the block letter parts of the body. Case. On the other hand, other people disagree with it, saying that cosmetic surgery can post a risk of serious diseases. Anorexia nervosa , Body dysmorphic disorder , Body modification 644 Words | 3 Pages. To what extent do different positions in structure versus agency debate affect our understanding of cosmetic surgery? This essay centres on study on childhood obesity, the structure versus agency debate and the extent to which different positions in this debate affect our understanding of . cosmetic surgery . Structure refers to external factors which are beyond an individual’s control and how these factors have a determining effect on the individual’s actions and behaviour.

In contrast, agency refers to the “characteristics of the study obesity individual which serve to construct the world around them.” In other words, as O’Byrne neatly puts it “do we make. Anthony Giddens , Emile Durkheim , Evolutionary psychology 1432 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery: Does It Help or Hurt You? Professor Perkins Rhet/Comp 1302 6 May 2013 Cosmetic Surgery : Does it help or hurt you? Everyone has seen that picture . perfect model on a billboard or in a magazine that seems to elements be flawless in case on childhood obesity, every way.

These types of write your, things convince people that they need to alter their appearance in order to become what is perceived as beautiful. There are approaches to attaining the designated look they are trying to reach; cosmetic surgery is one of them. Cosmetic surgery continues to study on childhood become a popular trend among. Hospital , Microsurgery , Patient 1874 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery: Is It a Solution or a Problem in Today's Society. M. Sandra Wood. (2005). Editing English. Intenet Guide to Cosmetic Surgery for Women. New York: The Haworth Press. Case Study. R. Merrel Olesen. (2005). Block. . Cosmetic Surgery For Dummies. New York: John Wiley Sons Inc.

James Partridge. (1996). ?Face Values', Health Education, 3/2:pp30-33 Time. (2002). ?Changing Faces'. Study On Childhood Obesity. August pp49-55 Her World. (2006). ?Why are we so quick to erase time?'. January pp116-118 Health Today. (2005). ?Face Off'. March pp66-67 Time. (2004). ?At what cost beauty?'. Block Letter. February pp48-50 . 1916 , 1920 , 1922 475 Words | 3 Pages. Building the perfect face: New trends in cosmetic surgery.

?Building the perfect face: New trends in cosmetic surgery for on childhood obesity men NOW THAT GOING UNDER THE SCALPEL IS CHEAPER, FASTER, AND LESS . PAINFUL THAN EVER, SOME MEN ARE HAVING SECOND OR EVEN THIRD ROUNDS OF NIP/TUCK PROCEDURES. Case On Childhood Obesity. ARE YOU READY FOR A LITTLE WORK? BY LESLEY ROTCHFORD, Published April 18, 2013 cosmetic - surgery -for-men/ Despite being chronically sleep-deprived and frequently hungover, not to mention regularly stressed. Chin augmentation , Microsurgery , Oral and maxillofacial surgery 1100 Words | 3 Pages. The Plastic Generation (Persuasive Speech on Child Cosmetic Surgery) The Plastic Generation Famous actress and model Patricia Heaton once said “Plastic surgery is like the big elephant in the Hollywood living . room,” (Brainy Quotes). For celebrities, a plastic surgery operation is just another trip to the doctor’s office. After all, in this day and age, image is everything.

We see this in on childhood obesity, high profile professions, and in essay, large cities across the country. However, recently in Beverly Hills, California, girls as young as 16 are getting nose-jobs as a “Right of study obesity, Passage”. Chin augmentation , General surgery , Hospital 954 Words | 3 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery In 800.B.C. India, people’s desires to pay to essay obtain beauty had resulted in a process, nose job. . Cosmetic surgery was the result of human beings’ desires to be beautiful. Beauty was always important in society. The more beautiful you are, the case more you will be admired.

This value and the desire had brought the essex cosmetic surgery to this world, but the surgery had only recently become accepted by the public, so here the questions come. Should cosmetic surgery become more accepted. English-language films , Mass media , Plastic surgery 647 Words | 2 Pages. spotlight. People are already put off by the idea that surgery could go wrong and instead the industry needs to set targets to study on childhood obesity reduce . complications and infections arising after cosmetic surgery . The UK market for cosmetic surgery is estimated to study obesity have grown by ?617 million (17%) between 2008 and 2010 to reach an estimated worth of ?2.3 billion. A fear of surgery going wrong coupled with high costs put people off having cosmetic surgery and obesity, has propelled the growth of non-surgical procedures. Million , United Kingdom 416 Words | 2 Pages.

or what about a new nose? Well Cosmetic surgery is cover, not new, but the popularity of it has rapidly increased in obesity, the last few years. . Cover Letter. Not only adults but also teenagers want to study on childhood obesity do the cosmetic surgery . Cosmetic surgery before the block cover letter age of study on childhood obesity, eighteen is becoming increasingly more and more popular, and nobody can’t stop it. Many factors are influencing the thoughts of young people for doing cosmetic surgery such as their appearance. Phd Thesis. Many doctors believe that cosmetic surgery is a science to increase the study on childhood obesity beauty. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 659 Words | 2 Pages.